Many patients, particularly the very young, the elderly and those with co-morbidities affecting coordination, need to use a facemask rather than a mouthpiece in order to receive inhaled medication via a pressurized metered dose inhaler with valved holding chamber (pMDI-VHC). This article explores the steps taken to design a range of facemasks that are age-of-user-appropriate. In addition, it discusses the ways the infant version has been validated in the laboratory.
Addressing the patient-device use interface: Development and laboratory validation of a facemask with anatomically-responsive face models
Face models facilitate critical performance evaluation of orally inhaled products in clinically-appropriate ways